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In conclusion, all these aspects mentioned above constitute stylistic means of rendering expressiveness to a text and of rendering the idea of orality and of original style. Academiei, vol. IV, Creanga, I. The aim of this paper is to investigate the slogan as a particular type of persuasive discourse and it is focused on the pragmatic framework of this type of discourse and the relationship between speaker and his audience.
The specific context shapes the slogan which uses various rhetorical devices and figures of speech. Slogans represent an extreme form of political discourse, which is used not only in the political publicity, but also in more elaborated discourse treating a political issue, where it functions as a conclusion. As a part of the political publicity, the electoral message shares a series of features with the publicity discourse and these characteristics derive from the two main functions they have to fulfill: to inform and to persuade the audience, regarded as a consumer virtual buyer or elector.
Just as the early commercials did not mean anything else but transmitting simple messages regarding the existence, the price and utility of a product, the contemporary political publicity may be considered an important means of informing the citizens about who the candidates are and what they offer from a political point of view. McNAIR, More than simply informing, the publicity of a product tends to offer it a particular significance that gives it individuality and convince the receiver of the superiority of that product.
In a similar way, the political publicity shows the public a product that is endowed with a value of change or of a sign. Nowadays, slogan, that represents the linguistic part of political publicity, is an interesting issue for researchers in various domains and the electoral message may be approached from many points of view. In communication and public relations studies, the publicity of a political issue is a product and its success depends on the political marketing strategies McNAIR, From a psychological point of view, slogan, as a type of persuasive message, raises a real interest in the role of linguistic force in marketing, publicity, the Bar, so models of communication based on keywords, on semantic cores of subliminal action are elaborated.
Also semiotics represents an instrument of investigating publicity, in general, and political publicity, in particular, aiming to explain how it functions and what is its importance. A semiotical approach notices that the publicity utterance is a particular discourse type, characterized by the syncretism of semiotic codes, by a dense intertextuality Because the linguistic element is placed in the center of the publicity message, together with the image, this allows an approach from a rhetorical and pragmatic point of view.
Thus, the persuasive strategies determine a certain configuration of publicity discourse and political publicity message, and the approach is relevant only if that speech act is considered from a pragmatic point of view. Political publicity discourse is performed as a unidirectional, non-mutual communication, from a speaker who holds a superior position because he has got the information, towards a passive hearer. The producer of a political publicity discourse may appear explicitly in the utterance, encoded as personal pronoun 1 st person pl.
Due to the particular goal of this type of discourse, the distance between the position of the speaker and the position of the hearer tends to be shortened or even cancelled. This personal pronoun in the plural makes the hearer understand that the speaker and the hearer belong to the same group, so that he might be induced the same opinion. However, the speaker s person remains out of the performed discourse in most situations. In order to achieve the first goal, its efficiency creating a favorable premise for the persuasion act, one can use extra-linguistic means: images that appear together with the text orally communicated or written , which are interwoven.
Captatio benevolentiae is achieved also by using some wordings that suggest the receiver is involved in a profitable partnership relation. As a form of political communication, publicity has a major shortcoming. Disregarding the agreement with the transmitted message, the public understand that they deal with a political content of that message, reflecting the interests, the ideas, the values of the person who promotes it McNAIR, Situated on this position, the receiver reader, hearer or TV viewer tends to move away from the transmitted message, to resist and reject it.
By means of persuasive strategies, the speaker tries to The spontaneous character of political publicity message results from using the colloquial variant of the language, from exploiting several methods of oral communication which are recurrent in this type of message. Addressing in the 2 nd person singular, in a familiar manner: Alege dreapta! The predictable character of publicity discourse is pointed out by the grammatical and lexical recurrences, as well as by the repetition and insistence figures of speech.
In a psycholinguistic approach, the existence of some repetitive structures presents advantages in receiving and memorization. The grammatical recurrence appears because there is a preference for typical structures in slogan, such as that with a verb in the imperative mood singular or plural and a direct object: Alege schimbarea! The repetition figures appear frequently in the publicity political discourse because their stereotype character, sometimes associated to symetrical structures achieves the effect of persuasion by insistence and makes the memorization easier.
The repetition is always a means of materializing the fatic function of publicity language, assuring a connection between the two poles of communication. Repetition at the phonological level rarely appears as rhyme: Ei cu ei, noi cu voi! Lexical repetition appears in more various forms, its typology in slogan being more restrained than in the publicity discourse in general.
The hyperbole, the stylistic superlative are figures of exaggeration that feature in the publicity discourse, but in the slogan, in the political publicity message are to be avoided, because of the specific product that is promoted. They prefer presenting this as a representative of a large group of individuals who constitute the target- public, so this is not the perfect choice, but a person who deserves the receiver s trust just for he is a member of the same group, one of them.
Creativity, innovation, distinctive features of any type of persuasive discourse oppose to the predictable character of publicity discourse. To the publicity discourse in general and to the political publicity message, the element of surprise has a tripled finality: to capture the receiver s attention, to involve him in decoding the significance of the utterance and thus to facilitate memorization, making him adopt a certain attitude or behavior.
The innovating unpredictable character of any type of persuasive discourse is manifest in the electoral message, which is possible to get from the receiver a reaction opposite to that aimed by the speaker, a reaction of over-saturation because of stereotypes and repetition. The receiver s attention may be captured and his interest may be maintained also by leaving the patterns behind. Creativity can become evident in various methods, placed at different levels of the utterance and in different degrees according to the receiver.
The target-public of the slogan is not homogenous, but when the speaker focuses on a certain segment of this public, he can design the expectations and general coordinates of this receiver by using specific methods in other domains political marketing , so that he should be able to introduce the innovating element in the electoral message in the most efficient degree. This constraint imposed The iconic part of the publicity discourse, which consists of a static or dynamic image, is one of the coordinates of this type of discourse and in the writespreading political message it is represented by the symbol of the party or by the picture of the candidate.
The predictability at this level can be diminished by using the caligrams. They offer the text an iconic dimension by modifying one or even more letters in a word, turning them into a design drawing with a value of a sign. By this innovation at the graphic level, representing an intimate connection between the iconic component and the linguistic one, the message succeeds in capturing the receiver s attention, in directly imposing him a EL signifying the product , the personal pronoun third person singular used with an apparent anaphoric value.
The lack of decoding possibilities, as there is no previous utterance containing a noun to be substituted, represent a reason for the receiver to look for this him and to find its referent. The interference between various discourse types is a technique which rarely appears in the electoral message, maybe because it has a parody aspect which contrasts with the seriousness of such a situation, with the solemnity that has to characterize a candidate.
Leaving the patterns and stereotype structures away could be achieved by using the metaphor as a figure of ambiguity, but just apparently, because metaphor in publicity discourse functions as an ornament and has an argumentative role. In publicity discourse promoting a political product, the speaker resorts metaphor in order to obtain the receiver s agreement, having him cover the distance between the significant that is present in the utterance and the term behind the metaphorical one.
This action of the receiver is controlled by the speaker as the latter uses an explicit metaphor, a stereotyped one, frequent in the everyday language, so that the decoding process should be predictable. The process of decoding this metaphor depends both on the collective mentality and on the social context, as the same word was used with a different meaning in a spot produced by Reagan s staff, spread during the election campaign in USA.
The use of polysemous words which create a surprise effect on the receiver in some contexts proves the role of ambiguity: Alege dreapta! Beyond the first reading of the utterance, the polysemy of the word dreapta may induce the idea of loyalty, The receiver may be leaded towards such a reading of the text, on the ground that the political publicity message is defined by polemic. Although the polemical feature is manifest in the publicity discourse in general, it is more obvious in the political message.
There is a polemic character in every slogan and it may be implicite or explicit, coded as antithesis. As it is transmitted by a political group, the intention of slogan is to promote an opinion which necessarily opposes the point of view of the other groups. The acceptance of a compromise would be unefficient with respect to getting the discourse performance, that materializes in determining the receiver to give his vote for a certain group to get legitimity.
This slogan implicitly contains the meanings so far only a small group was well, our program will bring welfare to the majority, our opponents will not do this way. The use of the comparison of superiority better implies the reading the persons who governed acted differently than we shall do, and function as a presupposition trigger. This association of the opponent to a series of negatively connoted concepts which underline the positive aspects of the speaker s own opinion, ideology, political group underlies every slogan and is manifested even in the other components of the political publicity message in many cases.
The negative publicity which is the result of the combative spirit focuses on the opponent s would-be defects rather than on the candidate s positive qualities, but, when the aim is getting the public trust and vote, it must be regarded as a simple persuasive strategy, not as a manipulation attempt. Due to the fact that political discourse and slogan, as one of its forms of manifesting, address both to the receiver s reason and emotions, they use persuasive strategies that rely on different linguistic levels.
The analysis of these utterances needs extra-linguistic contextualizing, as the lack of an image of social, cultural, economical background where their significance and consequence are projected may lead to false conclusions. Keywords: lexeme, flective, suppletivism, reduplication, alternation. The statement according to which it is considered irregular any form and any verbal paradigm which departs to a greater or lesser degree from the current and repeatable schemes of flexion GALR, I, is unable to distinguish between irregularities which are not marked in the grammatical analysis and irregular verbs which are marked as such.
The conditioned modifications must be excluded for a more accurate description. Those who have a different form of radical and a different one of flective must be considered verbs with irregularities. The verb a veni has another modification of the flective in the imperative: vino! The insertion of the subjunctive forms in the indicative paradigm is not unique in the Romanian language. The reasons of this take over are not explained in a satisfactory manner by language historians. The alolexemes of 1 st, 3 rd, 4 th persons have also short forms, etymological ones, some of them preserved until today, due to the very high frequency in communication.
Thus, lat. The verb a lua has been preserved under the same conditions reduced phonetic body, very high frequency, comparable to the verb a fi. The alolexems are reviewed, but only a formal analysis is made, not a functional one, the author remaining at the level of the studied texts, without mentioning the archaisms preserved by the dialectal texts. They would have stressed the value of a lua as a semi-auxiliary aspectual verb, a fact which was recorded by specialists GRAUR, and can be proved even today by the presence, in the very actual Romanian language, of many idiomatic expressions that demonstrate the The configuration of the irregular verbs, depending on the report between the lexemes and flectives, has separated them from the ones with irregularities, leading to their logical control in the learning process.
Keywords: neologism, adaptation, Roman, etymon, loan-word, representative vocabulary. The term of re-romanization is not considered adequate by some specialists: the term is not suitable, because Romanian has never lost, not even as a literary language, its essential Roman origin. Thus, the term of modernization is more adequate URSU, The role of Latin in this process was decisive: In the entire process of development of the literary Romanian language, especially in its modernization stage, the Latin language, known by many Romanian intellectuals, had a distinctively important role lending the literary Romanian language a great number of new words and at the same time it served as a modeler in the phonetic and morphological adaptation of neologisms of different origin ibidem, p.
The existence of the Latinisms in the representative vocabulary means their belonging to the Romanian literary language. Their adaptation has, however, constituted the result of a long process, determined not only by linguistic channels, but, in many cases, by the extra-linguistic, social-cultural contexts too. This process preserved the evolutionary traits of the vocabulary from the old Romanian language: the characteristic of the researched period: the presence of multiple and oscillating forms.
Given this feature of stability, constituted by the Latin character of the Romanian language, the integration of some lexical elements succeeded from the very outset: there are often put into circulation terms that have put on a Romanian coat and which we find in the present lexical fund in an identical form ibidem, p. This was highlighted by researchers: "The words are lent directly from French under their written form which is closer to the original Latin correspondent and are read as if they were Romanian, without nasalization, constriction and with pronouncing the final consonants, which corresponds to the Latin and Italian form GRAUR, But the basic rule of adaptation, enounced by Al.
Graur, has not operated consistently in any of the lexical areas, because the diversity of the extra-linguistic context intervened by the external causes of the diversification of the forms. Thus, in addition to the fact that Romance languages evolved differently from Latin, the involvement of some non-romance channels appeared A good example in this aspect is offered by the Latin neologisms of the 3 rd imparisyllabic declination, ending in -io, -ionis natio,-onis; regio,-onis Passing through an Italian channel nazione , which corresponded with the oblique forms of Latin Ac.
The question is whether there is a Russian channel to adapt these Latinisms in Romanian or if this productive model worked, in parallel with the Romanian, in Russian too. Formal diversity, which, essentially, reveals great difficulties in the adaptation process, is also found in Latin-Romance and non-romance channels.
Thus, chestiune, for example, has the variants: cvestion , chestie , cvestiune , cestiune , cuestie , cuestiune The dispute between the two channels has been settled differently outside the representative vocabulary in the second half of the 19 th century, when the Latin- Romance model relunches, imposing the forms in -iune. A word as, for example, absolut, is recorded with 39 forms out of the 45 on the dominant norm URSU, Sometimes, the variation degree may indicate more precisely the channel of a word s penetration.
A word such as activitate, confirmed in a text of Dimitrie Cantemir in is considered a direct Latinism by DILR, the French influence could not be invoked without reservation for that time Vocabularul reprezentativ and all other current dictionaries including DELLR, 31 consider it as having multiple etymons: French, Latin. Indication of the etymology by the lexicographical works, other than DILR, is therefore correct. Recently we are, however, capable of speaking of the design of a descriptive system for the Romanian language, with a theoretical complex apparatus and closely related to the facts of language, organized in a large bowl of illustration.
The general rule for the Romanian language was based on the features of Italian and French, recorded by Romanists: L italiano ha alterado relativamente poco le voci ereditarie Invece il francese ha alterado molto le voci ereditarie ibidem The limitation to the representative vocabulary, although defines the dominant direction, is unable to reflect the whole context in which it constituted itself.
First of all, the accommodation rules have changed in time, and some experts have applied them without distinction, obtaining relative results. In the first three decades of the 19 th century, the rules of adaptation from the old Romanian language were still active; the Latin itself was studied by Romanian scholars in colleges in Germany or in the Slavic world.
After this period a new adaptation system is constituted: "Most neologisms are now received from French, Latin, German and Italian, and in their adaptation correspondent forms in Latin are taken as a model, whose ordinary pronunciation in colleges and universities in Italy and in Romanic world is introduced in Romanian culture URSU, The 24 rules ibidem : that compose the adaptation system of the neologisms in the modernization process of the literary Romanian language put in a more complex light the adaptation of the Latin cultism from Vocabularul reprezentativ As previously noted, their difficulties of adaptation were smaller, which has allowed them the penetration into the Romanian basic lexical fund.
The present research aims to hightlight the role of quantifying phrases in subordinate clauses, expressed through a rich inventory of connectives. It is necessary to deepen the analysis of the quantitative in subordinate clauses due to the complexity of connectives operating at this level.
Since there is no clear delimitation of the subordinate clauses which strictly express the quantitative, their constituent elements are placed at the limit of other types of clauses. In order to clearly emphasize the characteristics of the quantitative in terms of phrases, a separate approach of each clause is being required, taking into account the introductory elements and the classes of specific verbs. A special attention has also been paid to quantitative connectives and their meanings and role in subordinate clauses.
Key words: expansion, inventory, connective, subordinate clause, quantitative connective. The comparison between the parts of a sentence and their corresponding subordinate clauses is revealed by the presence of certain common connectives prepositions, prepositional phrases, conjunctions etc. At the phrase level, the quantitative is expressed by a series of subordinate clauses having a poorer or richer inventory of connectives.
The subordinates that incorporate quantitative elements are analyzed differently due to the phenomenon of interference. Since there is no clear delimitation of the subordinates that strictly express the quantitative, each of them requires a special analysis, starting from their constitutive elements and the specific classes of verbs. The relative-interrogative direct object clauses are characterized by subordination to a verb that expresses information a ghici, a povesti, a spune etc.
The infinitival relative clause is expressed by a short infinitive and limited sintactically and lexically and uses the same connectives as the relative clause itself. The indirect object clause is as well represented at the phrase level as the indirect object at the sentence level. Temporal clauses of iterative simultaneity can be The adverbial clause of measure, quantity and approximation It is the subordinate which expresses categories such as proportion, time, space, value. This clause cannot be regarded as a whole, due to its characteristics of content and form which establish its classification into proper quantity clause and progressive quantity clause.
The adverbial clause of cause shows the same relation as that expressed by adverbial modifiers of cause at the level of the simple sentence, its value being established by the nature of the introductory elements and the semantic content of the whole subordinate. The authors recommend that the structure should be analyzed as an adverbial clause of cause in which the noun, adjective or adverb shifts Since they express the idea of superlative indirectly, they are felt as exclamatory sentences.
The former is followed by a mass noun or a noun with quantitative meaning, while the latter is followed by a noun that expresses the idea of time or manner. Toutes les informations de cet analyse sont importantes pour le lexique du roumain actuel. La coordination suppose l'assocition des deux noms d'objets. Le tiret remplace la conjonction et. The lexical corpus is represented by the texts of science popularization elaborated by the Transylvanian scholars. The study reveals the conjugation fluctuation and the main categories of suffixes through which the neological verbs have been adapted to Romanian.
Thus, verbs adaptation emphasizes the two phases of neologisms adaptation in Romanian, the old one, which is materialized in the usage of non-romanic suffixes, and the new one, of a Romanic type. Key words: conjugation, morphological adaptation, verbal suffixes. As regards the verb class, the difficulties appear in the case of morphological adaptation. The influences exercised on Romanian by other languages of culture and the scholars hesitation as concerns verbs inclusion in one or other of the Romanian conjugations caused by the lack of unitary grammatical norms caused most of the neological verbs to be included in other conjugations, different from the one they established later on.
Unlike other Romance languages, in which the 1 st conjugation is the most preponderant, in the history of the Romanian verbal flexion up to the 4 th conjugation holds supremacy both from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. Therefore, the most common situation is represented by the verbs which are to be subsequently included in the 1 st conjugation but which present, in this period, forms of the 4 th conjugation, a phenomenon which can be explained by the special productivity of this conjugation.
The consolidation of the 4 th conjugation was caused by the influence of the Neo-Greek in the Romanian principalities and of German and Hungarian languages in Transylvania. All the verbs borrowed from these languages were included in this conjugation. In the period of Neo-Greeks maximum influence on Romanian, the verbal suffix -isi, originating in the form of the Neo-Greek aorist and imposed in Romanian through the verbs borrowed from Greek, appears frequently with verbs borrowed from Romance languages or German.
Spion, it. Of Slavic origin, the ui suffix served to the adaptation, in Romanian, of verbs of various origins; once constituted as a Romanian morpheme, -ui was used for adapting verbs borrowed in various stages of the language and as a derivation element in the interior of the language. As it can be observed, most terms derived with this verbal suffix belong to the mathematical literature of the period, of German extraction. There are also verbs of Latin and Romance origin which were included, from the very beginning, in the 1 st conjugation lat.
Only a few verbs belong to the 4 th conjugation, following the Latin and Romance pattern: lat. The verbal neological suffixes, derivative ones, are not well represented: -ifica lat. They entered Romanian through Latin and romance verbs, displaying an erudite character. Their reduced frequency is clear proof that their adaptation is not realized before The 3 rd conjugation, poorly represented in the Romanian language of the 18 th century, experiences a process of consolidation, due to the preference manifested from the scholars towards the verbs of this conjugation borrowed from Latin and Italian, as well as to some verbs obtained from copying the structure of foreign verbs.
The foreign verbs which served as models for this lexical structure calques are derived with prefixes. They were preserved or replaced by an old Romanian prefix and the rootword was replaced with the Romanian equivalent of the foreign verb URSU, N. The texts of the Transylvanian scholars reveal the co-existence of the features characteristic of the adaptation of the neological verbs already mentioned 1.
We must observe that the early Romanic orientation manifested by the authors made possible the adaptation of many verbs to the 1 st conjugation, following the Latin and Romance pattern of adaptation. We must also emphasize that most of them 1 D. Ursu, art. I, BAR ms. II, BAR, ms. Key words: repetition, syntactic, structures. Repetition is a grammatical phenomenon with syntactic, morphologic and stylistic implications, being a phenomenon present at all levels of the language, in purpose or due to the fact that it cannot be avoided.
Repetition, as repositioning of a term, it is designed, at syntactic level, as an expression of the speaker s intention to emphasize the significance of the repeated term base thorough an urge marked by a series of specific means. In normative grammars it was outlined the fact that Numerous repetitions represents a certain level of grammaticalization, manifested by using a structural pattern which can be updated depending on the case with different lexical elements GALR, Byck proposes to summarize the types of repetitions, approaching the phenomenon as a syntactic process, excluding the repetitions which miss a synthetic function and which pursue only a stylistic effect, as well as the repetitions from folk poetry, as they have a quantity role.
Taking into consideration the shape, it was made the differentiation between immediate repetitions and distant repetitions. The immediate repetition can reposition the base identically or with variations of lexical or morphological nature. The distant repetition comprises, according to J. Byck s study the examples in which the repeated elements are separated by auxiliary words, which in combination, have a syntactic role BYCK, Regarding the unitary repetitive structures it was outlined that the Unitary repetitive structures constitute unitary assemblies from the syntactic and semantic point of view GALR, GALR, musters the unitary repetitive structures, as well as thier semantic values.
Therefore, the structures of x-x type can give the intensity, the continuity, the approximation, the distribution. The structure of x and x type represents the following values: duration, distribution, periodicity, succession, reciprocity, progression.
The non unitary repetitive structures had been approached from the perspective of some structures in which the terms of the repetition are not part of a single syntactic unit, but each of them represents distinct units between which are established various relations GALR, In GALR, , are mustered several types of such non unitary repetitive structures, as well as their role within the sentence. Among these are included the following structures: - x, x; - x dar x supposes the repetition of an element, after dar conjunction, and strongly emphasized; x dar ce x; X ce x? All these structures have the role to intensify from the semantic point of view, the element that is repeated.
There are also a series of repetitive structures used as syntactic processes thorough which it is expressed the aspect category of the verb. From the syntactic point of view, it was emphasized the idea that the repetitions with a durative sense represent a unit which forms a composed verbal predicate, and the ones containing verbs in non personal forms constitute units having a determinative function.
These repetitions which represent the aspectual value cannot admit isolative determinants which can differ for each element of the repetitive construction, as the determinations make reference to the entire unit, this reference being made from a global perspective over the entire construction. There must be mentioned the fact that the aspectual value of the repetition does not depend on the aspectual sign of the The repetition can express a durative action, without excluding the final phase of the stated process.
In special literature one insisted on the differentiation between the repetitive structures which express the duration and the verbal tenses: The repetition of the verb or of the interjection expresses the duration, the progress in time of the action, also taking into consideration the final phase, the one for ending the action. Through this complex aspectual value, the repetition opposes on the content plan to tenses expressing other aspectual values. Not all the verbal repetitions express the aspect category, and the one doing it are different from the ones not doing it by means of intonation and structure.
The repetitive structures like Legea e lege; Copiii sunt copii; Datoria e datorie, are based on the relation subject the first term of the repetition predicative name the second term of the repetition , pursuing to emphasize the identity of the first term of the repetition. GALR, What emphasizes the contrast is not only the repetitive structure, but also a specific intonation, where the second term of the repetition is said with a melodic peak in stressed syllabus, while the following is, generally, said with a dynamic peak GALR, The elements of the repetition suppose a pronunciation in separated stressed groups, at different intonation levels the first term is pronounced in high tone, and the second in serious tone GALR, In Romanian language there are also frequent structures of the x sau x type or structures based on the coordination of the repeated terms, formed by juxtaposed rhetorical questions, stating the fact that the second question supposes a repetition with a modified topic of the first one: Ce mi-e popa Stan, ce mi-e Stan popa.
Also at the level of the phrase meet two temporal, with a conditioning tone, coordinated copulatively, expressing the moment when the action of the regent with take place, but also a strict conditioning of its realization GALR, In order to express the immutability of a situation there are being used repetitive structures like Oamenii sunt cum sunt, these structures having a role of a strong argument. There are But, repetition is not un-informational at the level of the sentence content, the use or non use of a repetition bringing an additional respectively a minus information.
By syntactic repetitive structures we should not understand just the structures with syntactic function. The subordination relation is both syntagmatic and phase. This type of relation was characterized like structural, referential and hierarchic. The subordination relation is generating structures and syntactic functions, the relation and the function being jointly in connection by subordination I. Diaconescu, Starting from this correspondence of the units, but also of the plans at the syntagmatic level, there takes place the expansion and contraction, a fact supposing a transfer of the relation from the syntagmatic level at the phase level, in case of expansion, contraction.
It was outlined that the relation of dependence knows a series of structural performances, being made the distinction between: relation of unilateral dependence, relation of bilateral dependence, relation of collateral dependence and relation of double dependence. Depending on the number of the regents, there was made the distinction between the relation of simple or unilateral subordination, with a single regent, double, with different regents: name of verb, and the relation of incidence, with zero regent. The relation of incidence is different from the other types, having another syntactic hierarchy, fact which imposes its approach separately as a relation of interdependence.
Sometimes, a regent can have A subordinate relation is established between a regent and a determinant. If there are more determinants, the dependence relation to the regent is repeated. This aspect is supported by the fact that the coordination relation does not suppose a relation between syntactical units of the same type, but supposes a dependence relation of the elements coordinated in respect to the same regent.
This doubling is actually a repetition. The collateral relation of dependence supposes a repetition as this type of relation Is based on the relation of unilateral dependence through which is reported to the regent. Its performance supposes the presence of a second term dependent on the same regent, as an obligatory condition. Between the two dependent terms is established a semantic relation based on which is defined the content of the relation, namely the updated syntactic function.
The extension and expansion are procedures which can manifest at the level of the sentence and phase. These can be: phonetic, morphological and syntactic. There must be emphasized the fact that there will not be made a detailed presentation of them, but there will be summarized only the aspects which suppose repetition. Among the morphological means are the reaction and the agreement. The reaction is a morphological means which supposes the orientation and direction at the level of subordination relation, as the regent imposes a condition fulfilled by the bond.
The second morphological means, the agreement, is the phenomenon by which, in the virtue of the fact that the regent and its bond have similar morphological categories; in the phrase realized they must coincide. So, the agreement supposes a repetition at the level of the grammatical senses. In order to support this aspect we can emphasize the following: In Latin were repeated all grammatical senses, in a so called atomistic declination discipulorum sedidorum: magnitudo operas pulchrae. In Romanian, the declination was kept for pronoun and article singular masculine vocative and singular genitive-dative feminine have also preserved desinences , due to its pronominal origin.
Regarding the relation of adordination, there must be mentioned the fact that Although it has a series of commune features, the adordination is not manifesting as an homogenous relational process. The coordination can be monovalent or bivalent, both types could be: extensive, extensive-expansive, expansive. There must be brought the following completions concerning these types: The simplest form for the coordination to manifest supposes an amplification of the extension.
There can be noticed that the syntactical units in coordination satisfy, both of them, the same syntactic valence. There are also situations when the groups are made by trivalent, tetravalent coordination. If one of the syntactical units within a group which supposes coordination, is engaged in expansion, namely a part of sentence is transformed in a subordinate sentence, by predication, the coordinate in monovalent, extensive-expansive. No matter the type it represents, the coordination supposes a repetition at the level of the relation, no matter that there is repeated the relation of dependence for every terms implicated in the coordination to the regent, or that this relation of the determinant to the regent is doubled.
The coordinated terms are reported to the same regent, the regent being repeated for every element of the construction, its omission supposing the coordination of the elements. In other words, any apposition retakes, with additional information, the base, being Therefore, there must be outlined that the repetitive syntactic structures are noted also at the level of the syntactic relations. Nous nous demandons si celle-ci n est pas seulement la perception des gens communs quand ils pensent aux gens riches. Et quand ils vont plus loin ils constatent : Dreams of Mihail Sebastian, nocturnal, and diurnal, are diverse, some logical and precise, other complicated, absurd, confusing, of which he cannot remember too much.
His dreams, as an extension of the state of wakefulness, often offer the writer a refuge from a life that he lives forever with a temporary status. Being considered, in general, signs of future events, his dreams remain for Mihail Sebastian common occurrences, which, as he transcript more precisely, do not consider necessary to interpret them, also. Key words: Sebastian, journal, dreams, the refuge. However, Mihail Sebastian, sage and a special sensitivity, painstakingly recorded in the log air time, chronic intellectual morality, portray a world of melancholy and colorful politicians and writers.
Has few friends and notes bitterly that is about to lose her and them because of politics, which separates the chip dramatic people. Contents of a desire to record everything, despite the moments, not least, tired and deterrence, Mihail Sebastian left us, in fact, several journals. This log, rather an exercise of inner freedom, noted author and passion for classical music, heard frantically and hope that miss to be happy is true.
One thing is certain. Mihail Sebastian's diary is not with the intention of publishing life. Intimate diary that occurred 50 years after the death of the writer, when most people left this world, is a telling testimony. But the intimate diary of Mihail Sebastian, and contains the transcription of dreams, which, having no plan to publish the diary, no comment, but noted that such.
About 30 dreams occur over a period of nine years of his intellectual trajectory of journal entries, dreams that might constitute evidence of a higher reality. Experts argue that a dream is an unconscious psychological phenomenon that occurs during sleep: it consists of a series of images that play a role, either directly as an actor, or indirectly, as a spectator. Because the dream house of Braila is repeated, this could be assimilated to casei natale BACHELARD, 76 , which appears in the dreams of every man, a refuge in which to find rest, by being a breath recuperative.
Mihail Sebastian realize that not taken, intentionally or not, other characteristics of the dream. In popular belief, and not only the dream has a meaning, hide a forecast, which ignores one Mihail Sebastian total. Not find in any desire to dream interpretation, to decipher, to disturb or to be convinced that what dream symbols mean hiding something. The only involvement of Mihail Sebastian is the transcript of dreams, a certain qualification and thus learn that his dreams are lungi, scurte, complicate, absurde, stranii, teribile, multe.
Also noted the rush of giving evidence to transcribe the diary, not the other, but woke up to them looking. And then, what's left to do? Mihail Sebastian dreams to become an extension of the state of wakefulness. With open eyes traveling from Geneva to London, New York or California or comfortably installed on a boat bound for Alexandria, the famous Egyptian city. It is possible, we, as intelligent and sensitive man, the writer Mihail Sebastian to be understood that the dream, be it with eyes open, no longer brings any hope?
On Monday, 18 October , the day on which reaches 30 years found in a bad dream, But, sila de a fi treaz, urges him to sleep, to forget. Acute lack of money to make that dream turn into a nightmare, which tends not to end in May. Even if we consider the dream a parallel existence, other than subsistence life, still we can not accept as a nightmare the night which is still a final to continue with one diurnal, whose end is difficult to foresee. As you can see, dreams do not think it disturbs the writer, not to change behavior, not complicate it, but i have no life easier.
Considered prevestiri or signs of future events, dreams remain for Mihail Sebastian usual nocturnal happenings, which, as the transcript more precisely, not considered necessary to interpret them. Dreams are obviously an infinite variety. Some are logical and precise, others do not leave any impression, but all they want recorded in the log.
The Freud theory explains this dream by bringing wishlist refulate. Mihail Sebastian dreams. His dreams are nocturnal, and diurnal. In the night they are friends and acquaintances: Mircea Eliade, Nae Ionescu, Camil Petrescu, close and distant relatives, even Jules Renard, whose innovative presence does not surprise you very much. Chance to do remember him still in the evening, while hear a concert.
Diurnal Dreams, which I mentioned, are much fewer, more light and called the author irealizabile. Refuge, or hypnotic drug, diurnal or nocturnal dream, the dream gave no illusion that our writer would bring a mysterious message, worthy of being read. Almost irresistible temptation of every man to give a sense of dream images is absent from Sebastian. Dream, the spirit oddment human way to happiness or gloss?
Mihail Sebastian was not pronounced. I Vaugham, Dr. Curtea Veche, , Cartea cu euri Ed. Polirom, , et posthume, Jurnal Ed. Polirom, Documente sociale orale Ed. Tritonic, , Turretur. Curtea Veche, Je n en avais pas en le temps. A Rogona, dans les montagnes, des ponts roulants sont construits. Aujourd'hui, le pays est principat de premier grade Il croyait en l art construite par la congestion, dans la grandeur des montagnes, mais il savait profiter d'un petit sapin, sur une roche Je suis fier de n avoir jamais confondu les domaines.
Je pouvais entrer avec le scooter sous les pneus d une voiture Key words: oniric literature, aesthetic syllabus, oniric discourse. Reading them simultaneously the writing of the members of the oniric group can be observed that their writing emphasizes great differences, so that the most adequate way of approach the oniric literature is a distinct analysis of the individual writings which emphasize themselves as some independent worlds closed in themselves.
What exists for all group members is the common aesthetic syllabus. Some essential syllabus must be reminded. The aesthetic onirism claims that it considers art not as a way, but as a purpose, not as a way of investigation of another reality, but sending to sui generis reality that created it. The oniric literature rejects hazard rules and incoherency because it organizes according to rules characteristic of dream.
Unlike epic where events inevitably unfold one from another, in the oniric discourse appears not only the standard narration, but also a simple development of different facts which cannot create a story by themselves. It is also known that dreams cannot be narrated. What can also be noticed is the visual character to pictorial of oniric texts.
The text must be regarded as a space of a continuous development opened to endless ways of interpretation which at last should become some painted music where time has to be ceaselessly converted into space. And the art of space, architecture in the highest sense of word does not tell us about space, it would be more specific to tell that it is the art that makes space to talk, that space is the one that makes in it, and while any art hopes to reorganize its own representation that talks about it. Another main characteristic of oniric literature is that it cannot be narrated and it has to be read time and again as Genette advises: To read as it should be means only to re-read, means always from the first reading to re-read, to cover a book in all ways, in all directions, in all its dimensions.
So we can say that the book s space and the one of a page does not lay under the time of successive readings, but while through reading it emphasizes and it accomplishes space continually, influence it and overturn, and in some way abolishes it. Florin Gabrea, although he graduated Faculty of Architecture, makes his debut in literature in Amphitheatre review, then in he will continue to publish in The Venus that it will give him in the same year the prise for prose writing.
In spite of his profession, he proved his talent as a writer throughout his two volumes Hanimore and Beautiful is Only the Truth The stories from this book impress with the differences between them, both composition technique and narrative strategies. The story that opens the book is The Cathedral, a text in which alternates the realistic description with the bizarre one.
A quiet background appears inside a cathedral in which the narrator contemplates the image of a wax Christ. The image will be overturn into chaos: the bells of church keep on ringing without stopping Christ s hands are trampled underfoot and when he leaves the place the believers are strange and narrator says: I rushed down stairs, of course, one, two, three, four, five, but quicker than I tell you, and or the footpath they held me, making me immobile, pulling me down, pairs of endless hands, long, some of them were lying in my hair, others were behind me or they were passing over my face trying to touch my eyes, and exhausted because of the tens of arms I was beginning to suffocate, while between the knees were tossing as I noticed some thin skinny hands, trampled down and pushed up and down, of red color, although I would have had to see the windows from the houses that were opening one by one, then the doors, then the gates, then Do not Forget the Smell of Condado Wine shows presents the narrator captive in a room from where the only thing he can see are the passers-by feet.
The presence of a painting break in his existence. For the first time the reader is directly involved: It worth listening to him, you see that it is not so simple, I could tell you and I will tell you. The story that gives the title of the book is dedicated to another member of oniric group, the poet Virgil Mazilescu. The narrator and the characters are sitting at the table placed on the verge of an abyss.
The table was full of food and the empty dishes were broken without noise there, where sound cannot be brought back.
This dinner takes place twice a week, but the guests were always different. The organizer is Else, but she prefers to be told Hanimore. She is dressed in white, probably representing the eternal archetype bride, because, while her parteners change, she remains the same: Some said she is the one who does not change and she has been waiting there for a long time, maybe before each one s birth. The guests are disappearing one by one, and when they came back they are transformed: At any return the unknown had his cloths larger, the face more oblong, his hands were falling along his body and said the words forceful to himself, breathing the air around.
The end remains wrapped up in mistery and Tepeneag remarks in the mentioned article: Only in this exceptional using of subtext lies Gabrea s expressivity and modernity. The motto of the story Three Springs from Mateiu Caragiale: These nights are feared than drunkenness, warns the reader for a story like Mircea Eliade s. The woman guide them to a village in which the strange element reminds us of Magic Love of Vasile Voiculescu. They are housed in a room where an old calendar shows the date of 7 th September The Holy Virgin Pre-Celebration and all revolve round number three: all three, three travelers, three beds, three table linens, three towels, three rows of plates, three candles, three girls, the Three Springs Wood, three short knockings in the window.
Their dinner transforms into a dramatic act of Christ myth: the table cloth becomes holy vestments, clean vestment because goodness and love have not been taught with nothing, you were born white, your skin is white. This happens while it is said a paragraph from axion. Confusion is obvious and for this time number three can be both magic number The place can be a monaster4y since there are coloured windows of the doors with drawing with monks.
The end surprise the reader with a burning in which the girls representing the fairies burn symbolizing purification. The religious element is also present in First My Bride through ichthyomorphic symbol of the fish like in Dumitru Tepeneag literature. The narrator is celebrating his wedding at a restaurant where speciality is eating uncooked offals of a living fish named Holocanthus. The story begins in a realistic manner: preparation the guest s tables, of the aquarium in which there were the living fishes, but most of all the chaotic appearance of the guests.
Even the waiters were dressed as sailors. The bride and bridegroom are almost ignorated, the guests being attentive to aquariums. Eating this kind of fish has an entire ritual: It has to be caught alive with the forefinger in a well known place under its fin on the belly, it was well squeezed and the whitish and viscous gush is drunk with opened mouth and swallowed uncooked. The scene points out the grotesque. Disgusted, the bride and bridegroom leave the wedding and swim among fishes symbolizing the paradisiacal innocence. But after a while he is pulled out and treated like a Holocanthus.
In this volume is obvious the confusion of real and oniric level, the religious symbology together with the common reality and, as Gabriel Dimisianu says, Hanimore represents: the main act for this type of prose, it is the deliberated deformation of real, contemplated from an unusual angle. Beautiful is Only the Truth is made up of only three stories that alternate between a half-oniric, half-symbolic reality. Kid I have fell in milk has as characters three deserters hunted by the fear of punishment. In their journey they arrive at a building where they find for this time a picture of Jesus Christ and not a statue.
In a strange manner appears a picture from which the one in the picture talks to them and are invited by him to dinner where they are served with a salad of snails. Meanwhile the deserters listen to the radio that the Romanian army took up arms against Germans and one dies in a skirmish with a Hitlerite. Interesting in this story are the characters raving so that the levels real-oniric are mixed up. Climax is when there appears a pig and they began to go after it and in the end they feel like a pig. The only thing that helps them to eliberate from the doubtful reality is dream and the crisis of identity is present as in The Long Journey of the Prisoner of Sorin Titel: I m sorry, lieutenant, but you probably thought with my memories, and after all, who might know if one of us is not the other s memory or even his dream?
The story that gives the title to this volume is focused on a wedding that takes place in the middle of the nature. The main moments are caught by the photograph, an oniric character for all members of oniric group. During the wedding characters are trying to explain the oniric phenomenon. In The Guide of the Losts, characters are participating to a competition where they have to climb a mountain, but their voyage turn out to be endless and absurd.
This competition has an entire ritual: the inscribing, the receiving of cardboards, medical visit and also the lost of identity because the participants lose their name in favour of numbers. The entire activity is watched like in George Orwell s novel The guide and the child, Dorel unmask intertextuality: sometimes, like now, I have a strange feeling. I feel as if I were in a novel, yes, yes, in a novel. Florin Gabrea s prose writing represents a initiation for reader, each story hiding a mistery whose elucidation presumes repeated readings.
Cartea Romaneasca, Bucharest,. Selon Al. Le soleil-revenant, le soleil-plaie, le soleil-froid, le soleil-mort, le soleil sept fois plus grand etc. Pour Al. Another acception is that of the people who lived in the same time, while Eugen Cizek proposes a fourth variant, representing a key moment in history1.
Therefore, we can talk of the century of Pericle, or the Spanish Golden Century. The top moment for the Spanish art is considered to be during the 16 th and 17th century, corresponding to the Renaissance and the Baroque, respectively. The 16th century, in turn, is divided in two big periods, the one of Charles Vs reign and the one of his son, Philip II. The Spanish Golden Age is the Spain of some great personalities of mankind. Their teach us about their own reality, about their most intimate thoughts, making us the great honor of sharing their vision of the world.
The artistic school of Sevilla was the most important in Spain during the first half of the 17th century, dominated by the Baroque spirit, so well represented by Velzquez, the most important Spanish painter of the Baroque poque. When talking about don Diegos life, Ortega y Gasset said that it was one of the most natural and simple a man could ever imagine In the case of Diego Velzquez, the very little information we have about his life, has a strange character.
We know so little about him, but we do not need to know more, as there was only one big event in Velzquezs life: he was named the kings painter when he was very young3. Goya, Bucure ti, Editura Meridiane, , p. Till the day of his death, on the 7th of August , Diego Velzquez spent his life at kings Philip IV court, accompanying him all over, including a very important meeting between the Spanish monarch and Louis XIV, on the Pleasants Island.
He was one of Philips protgs, being named the kings knight in and decorated with the cross of the Order of Santiago. The Spanish society of the 16th century, envied Velzquez for his wealthy position, which brought him many animosities. One day, shortly after being named the kings personal painter, Philip IV told him people said he only knew how to paint heads. The young, 24 year old painter, replied: Sire, this is a great honor, as I have not seen yet a well painted head4. In his paintings, most of them portraits, Velzquez showed the reality of the Spanish society, dominated by mad people, brought at court by the king himself.
The realism of his paintings was, most of the times, overwhelming. In , Mayans y Siscar told an extremely amusing moment, related to the painters biography. While he was in Italy to make a portrait of the pope Inocentiu X, Velzquez left the finished painting in the popes room and one of the servants of the latter, when he entered the chamber, thought that the pope was still there5.
The minuteness of Velzquezs paintings made famous two of his works: Las Meninas, which was first called The family ant The surrender of Breda, also known as The Lances6. The first painting reproduces a scene of Velzquezs studio, having princess Margarita and her servants in the forefront, then in the back seat stood the king and queen, whose figures are reflected in a mirror and don Diego himself appears painting on the easel.
The technique used was that of light and shade. Regarding the second picture, it presents a great historic interest. The Lances show an event that took place in , when Ambrosio de Spnola, marquis of Los Ballases, the best commander of Philip IV in the 30 year war, conquests the city of Breda, one of the key places of the Dutch, situated in Brabant. In , Velzquez immortalizes the scene where the Spanish general receives the key of the town from the hands of Justin of Nassau, the brother of Mauriciu of Orania, on the 5th of June , after a four month siege.
Spnola allowed the conquered army to leave Breda, keeping their guns and waited at the gates of the town. Afterwards, he saluted the Dutch general who was the first to get out of the fortress, followed by his wife. Mayans y Siscar, Arte de pintar. The notice of the victory had been received with great joy by the people of Madrid and by pope Urban VIII, who congratulated Spnola on washing his hands in the heretics blood7.
In November , a play written by Caldern de la Barca was performed at Madrid, based on the surrender of Breda.
The author puts in Spnolas mouth the words that were to remain famous: The value of the conquered ones is what makes the winner famous. Velzquez must have seen the play and, nine years later, after many studies, he forged a historic painting. On huge canvas, the battle field appears, full of smoke, clouds and blur. On each side of the painting, there are nine figures: the Dutch on the left, and the Spanish, on the right.
The group of the defeated ones is achieved with a bigger variety of light and color. The Spanish are more elegant and sophisticated. Among the multitude of figures, each one of them individualized by the way it was painted, it is believed that the figure of the painter also appears on the canvas. One of the most important elements of the painting are the 28 lances, only four of them being bent.
The lances of Velzquezs painting are a national symbol, as they were the characteristic weapon of the Spanish tercios, an obsession for the Spanish, both positive and negative. They sustained the empire, but, at the same time, they cost a great deal of money, much more than the country could spend8. Norbert Wolf, Diego Velzquez The face of Spain, Taschen, , p.
Jos Ortega y Gasset, op. Secondly, the lances were the symbol of Spains menacing power, showing both skill and compassion Spnola looks at his enemy with kindness and puts his hand on Nassaus shoulder 9. The surrender of Breda does not contain any allegoric or mythological reference, representing also the first picture, entirely historic, of the modern European painting.
Many things have been written on don Diego Velzquez de Silva. It is proved by the selection of biographies of the 17th and 18th centuries, commentaries, letters and poems dedicated to him by well acquainted poets, such as Francisco de Quevedo, autographs and documents published in in the volume Velzquez. Homenaje en el tercer centenario de su muerte Velzquez.
Homage on the third anniversary of his death , by the Diego Velzquez Institute of Madrid. Francisco Pacheco, don Diegos father in law, wrote in Diego Velsques de Silva, mi yerno, ocupa con razn el tercer lugar, a quien despus de cinco a os cas con mi hija, movido de su virtud, limpieza y buenas partes, y de las esperanzas de su natural y grande ingenio 10 Diego Velsques de Silva, my son in law, has the third place in my heart, the Norbert Wolf, op.
Francisco Pacheco, in Velzquez. The great painter died on the 7th of August , being laid out in the Alczar, wrapped in his mantle of the order of Santiago. He was buried during the night at the San Juan Bautista church, in the presence of many royal dignitaries. His wife, Juana Pacheco, survived him only for a week and was buried next to him.
Today, there is no trace left of the church or the tomb of don Diego. But his work did survive. Maybe, that is the reason why his works are full of such elements, either we refer to his drama or his poems. First and foremost, the figure of the king is evoked as a positive one, playing the role of the best judge, like in Lopes plays El mejor alcalde, el rey The best mayor, the king , Fuenteovejuna or Perib ez y el comendador de Oca a Perib ez and the comendador from Oca a.
Regarding the historic events Lope assisted during his 73 years of life, they were so many, such as the personalities that were contemporary to him. The period when Lope lived is one of great flowering for the cultural and spiritual life of Spain. Merchandise from all around the world arrived at the Spanish court, books from Italy and Sevilla, students from Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain and fourth of Europe and Alcal de Henares, painters from the South.
In , one year before Lopes birth, Antonio de Berruguete, the most representative plastic artist of Spains Renaissance, died. In , when Lope was still a child, the works of the Council of Trento came to an end, establishing the spiritual dogma of the Spanish life. In , there was the rebellion of the Moors from Alpujarras and Lope will observe the joy in his own home ant of his neighbors for the revival of the Reconquista. In , the prince Don Carlos and queen Isabelle of Valois, died.
Close to Lopes house, in Lpez de Hoyos studio, a young man called Miguel de Cervantes wrote his first verses in honor of queen Isabela. At the age of nine, Lope heard the first stories about the heroic battle of Lepanto. In , Francisco de Quevedo, one of the most important authors of the novella picaresca, was born. When Lope was 35, the great poet Fernando de Herrera, died. In , Velzquez was born. In , both El Greco and Cervantes die. Lope de Vega witnessed the publishing of the two parts of Don Quijote, in and , the birth of Don Juans legend and Calderns philosophic play Life is a dream.
But Lope did not only witness important historic and cultural events, but was also a part of them. In , we find Lope on the lists of volunteers who were about to leave for the Azore Islands, under the command of the marquis of Santa Cruz, don lvaro de Bazn, in order to pacify the last island that did not recognize kings Philip authority. In , Lope took part at the war against England, along with the Invincible Armada.
In , Charles I of England came to Spain, together with the duke of Buckingham, looking for a wife. In , Portugal separated from Spain. In his works, Lope did not only talk about the historic deeds that included him directly or not, but also about the popular feasts, the way how the people of Madrid enjoyed bullfights and religious fiestas.
One of the center characters of Lope was the city of Madrid, whose buildings and churches, the author described, along side with the Retiro palace. Lope de Vega, also known of El Fnix, is not only the author of more than comedies, but also of a big number of poems which try to recreate scenes of day to day life. Among them, there I one which requires a special attention, as it refers to the visit of Charles I in Spain in the year This quatrain is extremely well known among the English and Spanish historians, who studied the visit of Charles I in Spain.
The reason why the verses are so popular among the English is that they appear in James Howells chronicle, from the 17th century, entitled Family Letters. Finding himself by accident in Madrid in the spring of , Howell attended the demand of the English ambassador to accompany Charles in his visit. The verses were sent by Howell in a letter delivered to captain Thomas Porter, on the 10th of July The Spanish society of that time thought that Charles came to Spain to become a Christian, and, on the other hand, the people at court, evaluated the benefits that a personal union between Spain and England could bring to them.
Through this virtual marriage, Charles I was trying to become a mediator for the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, whose misunderstandings devastated Europe at the time. The Spanish were extremely refractory to the idea of giving their infant in marriage to a heretic, and that is why they postponed the offer for some years, managing to maintain Charles hopes and to keep away from an English military offensive.
The heir to Englands throne remained in Spain till September , but he will not receive a positive answer from the Spanish authorities, that would lead to hostilities in , when the English attacked Cdiz. Lope alluded to this event with a series of allegoric elements, comparing Charles to a rainbow which left London to arrive in Spain: Iris del cielo de la Gran Breta a Despus de tanta tempestad, Espa a Te mira en breve esfera luminosa As for Lopes historic plays, there sometimes came up the question whether they were based on real facts or not.
For many historians who studied Lopes works, the most real from the historic point of view, seems to be Fuenteovejuna, which narrates the collective vengeance of the villagers of Fuenteovejuna against the abuses of their comendador. The event is mentioned in the Chronicle of Rades, and the comendador is historically attested. Lope is the author of many plays with universal history events or characters, such as The slave of Rome, The great feats of Alexander, Rome in flames, The great duke of Moscow, The famous Transilvanian prince, which evocates the figure of Sigismund Bthory. Lope de Vega is the typical example of the genius, of the man who surpassed his contemporaries in order to observe and to surprise better their day to day life.
Lope fought and created. He fought for the ideal of a great Spain and he created an impressive work. Lope de Vega is, for sure, the spirit of a historic period, his life being a lived and assumed history. But not only Lope was a warrior and untamed spirit. Armada and some plays about him being captured by the Moors and brought in captivity to Alger. In the 18th century, almost every Spanish home gave the country a monk, a soldier or both The king and the church have always been the symbols of the Middle Ages, the symbols of power.
The king sent his army to fight in order to conquer new territories, and to increase his countrys influence upon the others. But to me, the real symbols of the poques through time are always the ones who immortalize the reality of their day to day life, the painters and the writers. The borders have not survived through time, but the works of these great creators of art, did. Politics have changed, the entire world has changed, but the works of art are eternal. Lope de Vega et Velzquez constituent sans aucune doute uns des plus reprsentatifs personnages de cette poque, car ils ont su raliser une image si raliste de leur temps, en utilisant les verses et la peinture.
Des tableaux tr s impressionnants parmi loeuvre de Velzquez comme Las Meninas et Les lances constituent une vive et vraie image de lEspagne de la monarchie autrichienne, de m,me que les verses de Lope qui parlent des v nements remarquables qui ont marqu la vie quotidienne de lEspagne du Si cle dOr. Lope de Vega a t un personnage vraiment complet, car il a crit et a lutt, comme son voisin, Cervantes, pour lidal dune Espagne grandiose. Le premier Si cle dOr de lhistoire de lEspagne reprsente videmment pour celle-ci une priode importante, car ctait la quelle a connu une des plus grandes floraisons de sa culture.
Owning a wide landed property, the Glogoveanu family, could join other families with an old and far off origin as boyars, probably before the foundation of the feudal state Walachia. The existence of their estate is proved by a great number of testaments and many others documents in which are specified the frontiers hot rnicii that have remained as a testimony along the time. This noble family owned properties in four from the five districts of Oltenia: Dolj, Gorj, Mehedin'i and Romana'i. The estate in which they actually dwelled and the centre of theie socioeconomic and political life was Glogova, situated in the north-eastern parts of Oltenia.
After the members from this family had established a residence in Craiova, the main city of the province, to the end of the 17th century, they tried to extend their dominions in the districts from the field region, Dolj and Romana'i.
At September 5th the estate was owned by Florica, the daughter of the comis Radu Corl tescu. They sold the estate to lady Elina, the wife of Matei Basarab. At 5th September , the estate was belonging to Florica, the daughter of the comis Radu Corl tescu, and to the pitar Nicola Glogoveanu. In , the pitar Nicola bought back the village with ducats and became again the landowner of the estate. In , the estate was the property of Matei Glogoveanu.
Six years later, Ilinca Strmbeanu appeared as the owner and she would leave the possession to his son Ioan a document from March 6th The serdar Ioni' Glogoveanu sustained that tirbei enclosed, without any right, this estate. The serdar tirbei contested the validity of the document, saying that the village mentioned above had been in the possession of Nicolas sister, Ani'a Rusi'a, who sold it to Constantin Strmbeanul.
Glogoveanu mentioned that this sale wasnt correct. After the measurements were done, was decided that half of the village should be due to Ioni' Glogoveanu, and the other half to the serdar tirbei7. Marin Matei Popescu, Adrian N. Beldeanu, op. The boyars from the Glogoveanu family held also, starting with , the estate Boanta. It was mentioned for the first time in a charter emitted at 3rd April , through which, Petru Voievod, gave a half from the property of Bonteni to Neagomir and the other half to Neagoe8. After this date and until , the estate had many owners.
The monastery received, along the time, from different rulers, many legal confirmations for these parts of the estate. At 3rd June , Michael the Brave, accorded to the dreg tor jupn Radu, great clucer, to Preda, great postelnic and to Stroe, great stolnic, the possession over several parts from the village Bonteni, along with vineyards and mills, bought from Staicu, Radu and Stroe for aspri9.
After this date, the v taf Necula, owing some debts to Preda, former great ban of Craiova, had to sell some of the villages among which Boanta was too At the end of the 18th century, the serdar Ioni' Glogoveanu was at the law with the serdar tirbei regarding the possession of some villages. Among them, Boanta counts too. At 2nd September, in the same year, and 22nd, the next year, this piece of land became the property of Nicolae Glogoveanu, in exchange for some debts that Constantin Tabacu owed to him.
At 1 st March , Ecaterina Melinescu and his husband Dr ghici Preo'escu sold more stnjeni from this property to Nicolae Glogoveanu: at 18th August 3 stnjeni , at 20th August 6 stnjeni , 30th November 17 stnjeni , at 15th July one Documente privind istoria Romniei, 16th century, B. XI , p. XXI , p. In the estate was in the property of the freeholders and of the clucer Constandin Glogoveanu. Eight years later, owners of the village had become the aga Constantin Glogoveanu and another two members of the family Melinescu, Constantin and State, and the freeholders Another estate from the possessions of the Glogoveanu family is Valea Muierii.
Before becoming the property of this boyar family, it belonged to the Melinescu family. At 15th July the same Ecaterina Melinescu sold to the same boyar another 5 stajens from the land. At 10th Fiera Melinescu sold to Nicolae 17 stnjeni which she previously bought from Constantin Mndru. Except for the members of the Melinescu family, others dwellers from Valea Muierii, also sold their parts from this estate to the Glogoveanu family.
At 5th January , Constantin, the son of erban and Ni'u, the sons of erban, sold to the boyar Glogoveanu 33 stnjeni. After this date, Ion, the son of Sandu Ureche, sold more stnjeni from the land to these boyars: at 18th December , 8 stnjeni; at 22nd April , 20 stnjeni. The villagers reclaimed that the leaseholder cut wood from their forest and not from the Ecaterina Miclescus forest. The court designated a surveyor to establish who owned the forest. The trial lasted until and finished with the reconciliation of the parties The possession from R cari became the property of the Glogoveanu family before , as results from the two documents.
The first, a petition of the inhabitants of those places in which they declared their discontent regarding the administrator of the estate, Hristodor Ivanovici25, and the second is a contestation of the administrator Hristodor Ivanovici, addressed to the rule of the Dolj district, in which he showed his discontent regarding the way the inhabitants performed their duties In on the property of Constantin Glogoveanu were put in the possession of land socmen 5 with 4 oxen, with 2 oxen and 81 poor peasants , receiving acres and and 32 m 26 pr jini of land.
In , the inhabitants from R cari reclaimed to the authorities that Constantin Glogoveanu, the owner of the estate, took from them, a year before, a third from the land they had received in , asking for justice. In order to solve their request, was constituted a Dinic Ciobotea, Monica C linescu, op. Culegeri, the 3rd series, year V, , nr. IV, , p. I, , p. Commission of Establishment, which analyzed the documents of both sides and decided that Constantin Glogoveanu should keep this third part of the land At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the owner of the R cari estate, with a surface of arable acres and of a forest, was the same Constantin Glogoveanu The large number of estates demonstrates both their quality as important boyars and the economic role that they played in the Romanian society.
Matres sur une immense proprit fonci -re, les boyards Glogoveanu ont pu se rallier aux autres familles avec une ancienne et suprieure origine seigneuriale, devant la constitution de la principaut de la Valachie. Lexistence de leur proprit fonci -re est demontr par plusieurs testaments, cadastres, rests comme tmoignage tout au long des si -cles. Cette famille seigneuriale a eu des proprits fonci -res dans les districts: Dolj, Gorj, Mehedin'i et Romana'i. Leur proprit dorigine et le lieu daffirmation socio-conomique et politique a t Glogova, situ au nord-ouest dOltnie. Ces proprits fonci -res dmontrent la qualit de grands boyards et le rol conomique jou par les boyards Glogoveanu dans la socit roumaine.
Ibidem, Prefectura jude'ului Dolj, Servicul Administrativ, dos. The War between Russia Turkey that ended through the Peace from Adrianopole , September 2nd- 14th had very important results in the social and economic evolution of the Romanian Principalities. Following this Treaty, the Danube would become an important thoroughfare for goods and products. The new conditions that followed The Adrianopoles Peace will lead to the revival of some old towns such as: Giurgiu and Br ila, and equally, to the setting up of some new ones: Severin, Alexandria, Calafat, and so on1. Russias wish of counterattacking the influence of Austria to the Lower Danube where sailing has already begun in with an Austrian shi called Franz I2 , together with the necessity of creating a harbor downstream Cazane where there were smooth waters, and ships could spend their winter there led to the appearance of a new town in the Field of Severin3.
This town has been burnt down by the Turks in , August, 6th and has not been rebuilt. Moreover, it has also been struck by the floods of River Topolni a each spring, for a few years in a row. The inhabitants welcomed the Governor and asked him to displace the entire village on the field of Severin, surrounding the Roman Caster. Realizing the importance of building a town in this area, General Pavel Kiseleff ordered through Order No.
The Magistrate of Cerne i together with local traders Gheorghe Opran and Ion G rd reanu dealt with the performing works. They had the revenues of the estate and fishery near the Danube of Small Valachia at their disposal. Pajur , D. Court, a School , a Prison, a Church and a Bar. The Board of Administration was forced to put the map of Severin and two plans necessary for the construction of the new town , at the disposal of the Magistrate of Cerne i. All these have been sent in , April 27th by the Department of L untru4.
After the analysis of the first plan of the town of Severin made by the State Engineer and sent in , April 27th to the Magistrate of Cerne i and to Engineer Moritz von Ott to be performed, the surface of the newly-born town would have been of square fathoms. Of these: were destined to squares and streets; were asserted by the local gentry and chapmen as being given to them in ; the rest of square fathoms, represented goods for sale at the price of 4 lei and 50 chinks6. According to this first plan, the town was designed in front of the foot of the Bridge of Traian, area divided into pieces house lots meant to be offered to the inhabitants of Cerne i7.
According to a letter sent by Ion G rd reanu, president of the Magistrate of Cerne i, of the Department of L untru, at the time, Engineer Moritz von Ott was about to arrive in Bucharest in August , with the request of marking the place for building the Inn of the town, the shops and other necessary institutions for the new town8. In the following period though, some citizens and 40 other people from the local gentry and traders, filed complaints of refusing to move into the new town, asking for some facilities instead. On May, 16th, the Ministry of Interior answered to all these and to the Memorandum written by the Magistrate in support of explaining their complaints: Mastery State does not force anyone to move into the new location, only those who want to will move to the decided location for the new town9.
Even if, from various reasons, the citizens refuse to move into the new town, the inhabitants from some villages Banovi a, 'imian and Schela Cladovei have worked together with the State Engineer to measure and divide the estate of Severin for houses, shops, markets and streets. Following this, the 4. Severin, The Town Hall of Tr. Places in a total surface of square fathoms10 have been sold until , July, 26th.
Then, In September , a great deal of merchants and persons also bought lands for houses and shops. The works will stagnate in the next two years as a result of the political changes. The plan of building the town near the ruins of the Bridge of Traian, over the ruins of Caster Drobeta will be abandoned as well. Thus, even if the formal year of building the new town was , the real one was During the reign of Alexandru Ghica, Governor Mihail Ghica was appointed to deal with the issues raised by the building of the new town. Engineer Xavier Villagross, that designed a new plan a western more one12 , that supposed a new place for the new town, was sent there in the spring of According to the new plan, Engineer Xavier Villagross did not agree on the new town enclosing the Roman Caster on the reason that it would damage many vestiges or that the future researches will be affected by the buildings and proposed the centre of the future town to be in the North of the ruins of the Medieval Borough.
After the plan has been approved and debated by the Romanian Administrative Border , February, 11th and through a Decree Law in , February, 28th, engineer Moritz von Ott was appointed to perform it, bearing the title of Town s Engineer This plan was designed for families and enclosed a regular street network that intersected in a square angle with the wide squares with leafy areas, being a rightful copy of many western models: a miniature achievement of all the achievements of civilization, a mirror on field of the liberal- bourgeois forms of life, with an absolutely antonymic character to that of Cerne , that still remained the keeper of traditions, of feudal forms of life soon defeated, destroyed altogether with Cernet, incapable of adapting to changes The house lots were divided into three categories: the ones from the center, those on the street near Danube and thirdly, those with facades to the large squares belonged to 1st class.
In their case, a square fathom was to be paid with 2 lei; the ones from towns centre, second class, would have been paid with 1 leu and 2 chinks per According to the same plan, Towns Engineer, Moritz von Ott was demanded to begin tracing down the town, dividing it into paints and leaving the quarantine in front of the town and the tower of the medieval borough and the Botanical Garden to the left.
This second plan of Turnu Severin was a cartographical achievement that presented a town on the banks of Danube with a modern architecture, with parallel and perpendicular streets, with large squares. The plan was criticized by some inhabitants that considered its high position would not allow a proper supply with water from the wells Annex 18 - The Plan of Turnu Severin at the end of the 19th century Based on the inhabitants of Cerneti refusal to move to the new town, the Administrative Board of Walachia strengthened by Order in , June, 10th, decided to allow strangers to buy land in town.
This decision had important consequences to the future development of the town. Many inhabitants of the nearby villages settled here in the following years, and, right from the beginning, the western part was filled up with Germans that formed a German suburb which would greatly influence the future development of the town due to its own specificity.
The new town is, right from the beginning a modern, bourgeois development and that properly marks both the economic side and the primary occupations of its inhabitants. The modern, bourgeois character would be given by the foreigners that settled into this town that brought the western mentality and civilization with them. There are 43 family leaders from the suburb of Severin mentioned in a document of the Court of Mehedinti in the same year that paid taxes to the State. The economic competition between the two localities dated back to the establishment of Turnu Severin and lasted for a decade and a half.
It ended with the complete domination of the new town. The main institutions: the Prefecture, Law Court and Police moved together with the capital of the county, from Cerneti to Turnu Severin in There were only houses built in Severin at the time, and the local statesmen commuted from Cerneti to Severin. The final settling of the county administration, the building of the new small shops area in and the beginning of building made by Family Ciupagea the central Church in the following year brought a powerful revival of the new town There also began a campaign meant to raise funds for building a Public School.
Mihai Butnatiu, op.
The process of urbane development is alos urged by the decision of the Commission from , April, 13th to allow a six-month delay to those that did not fininsh the building of their house after 3 years. The real economic life of the new town began in Some buildings have been built in the harbor: one for the Austrian Agency and Customs Office as an annex of the Austrian Agency-, another for the Shipyard-meant to repair the ships that circulated on the Danube and that spent the winter there. The road linking Severin from Craiova was also open in The fact that this road went round Cerneti led to its rapid fall.
The road between Craiova and Turnu Severin together with the Danube made a real center of the western area of Oltenia. The urban development of the town continued to grow in the 6th and 7th decades of the nineteenth century. Due to the fact that the entire surface of the town was extended, an important need arose in to install barriers at the main roads of the town: that leading to Craiova, to Orsova, to the Agency and to the marketplace. If the authorities agreed on giving huge facilities to the persons that intended to settle in the new town, in the 5th and 6th decades, due to the great deal of persons moving into town, the initial scheduled surface was becoming unsatisfactory.
The prices for buying land doubled, and the settling conditions hardened, being expressly mentioned that the money should be paid before starting to build and the process of building should end in maximum 3 years Seeing the obvious progress of the town, the inhabitants from Cernati asked ruler Barbu 'tirbei in on a formal visit to allot them some land in the eastern part of the town. In this way, there has been made an adjustment to the initial pan of the new town.
Approximately places have been added and, unfortunately, the entire symmetry of the initial plan was broken: 22 streets have been curved in the eastern part, added to the curve made in order to get out of the town, respectively, the road leading to Trgu-Jiu The completion was approved in , and in the following spring these lands have been auctioned.
The inhabitants of Cerneti were dissatisfied by this decision. Despite after both the initial plan and the supplement, more than pieces of land remained unsold, in , another plan supplement has been made. A great deal of pieces of land19 has been added to the western part of the town. Due to the immense interest for constructions, especially in the areas with a view to Danube, the Communal Council decides a new expansion of Severin. The plan was put into practice in , October, 18th. According to this new supplement, the buyers were obliged to end the construction of their house in 4 years after buying the National Archives, Dr.
Municipality intended to build some Public Institutions with the money taken from selling these lands Some citizens filed a petition to the Government. They concerned that the town has continuously extended because of these 2 supplements and that the ruins from end of the Bridge of Traian have been in danger to be damaged.
Their protest was taken into account and, in , the Government appointed a Commission to make a new plan of the city The greatest square of the town was brought up-to-date in the 7th decade of the 19th century. It has been metalled with several layers of gravel and sand. Hospital Gracescu and the new railway Station completed in were the most imposing buildings in town. Other important buildings completed the urban dowry hotels, restaurants, cafes , of whom we mention Grand Hotel belonging to Elias Brothers, Europa Hotel and Apollo Saloon Coming back to the third supplement to the plan, the plots were allotted to all kinds of buyers: foreigners, peasants, landowners, Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, and Germans disregarding the initial project.
Ion Ionescu from Brad noted in his work dedicated to the Agriculture of Mehedinti County that, in spite of the wish of the Ministry, the mayor of the time added the plots from the Brigde area to the initial plan. The mayor himself would have bought 6, and gave other 2 to the Prefect Mavrocordat, 2 to the president of Law Court, 2 to Judge Raicoviceanu and some other to other powerful persons All these taken into consideration, in there was another supplement made to the in initial plan, the fourth, on which occasion 2 places with public buildings on them were numbered and other places given up by Hospital Grecescu, according to the donation act In , the fifth expansion of the town has been made, and several plots for housing in the eastern part of the city have been sold, on which occasion, the village of Banovi a was practically swallowed by the increasing development of the new town Demetrescu described Severin in , on the occasion of the first monograph of the town: The town of Severin, laid in the plain that before bore the name of Field of Severin, on the banks of River Danube, in front of the ruins of the Tower called the Tower of Severin and of the remains of the Bridge of Traian, lays on hectares.
It has a rectangular design, with 12 streets in length and 20 in width, and it is divided into 4 suburbs: suburb Traian, suburb Sever, The National Archives, Dr. Demetrescu, op. Nicolae Chipurici, Mite M neanu, quoted work, p. The design comprises house lots and, houses and buildings have been built on more than half, with a population of inhabitants, including floating persons Annex 19The Plan of Turnu Severin at the beginning of the 20 th century Severin had 12 public buildings, 6 churches 3 Orthodox, 1 Catholic, one Protestant, and 1 synagogue , a hospital, detention before trial, railway station, Ships Agency, administrative palace and law court.
There were only buildings with modern architecture in towns center. Now, streets begin to be paved, and the main thoroughfare was and currently is, Big Street. It was still un-cobbled in In the years , Carol Boulevard has been built, together with Traian High School and the Railway Station, after a design made by the chiefengineer of Bucuresti. Three rows of linden trees have been planted in the area. Starting with , Enterprise of Basalt from Bucharest begins to asphalt some streets and pavements between Carol Boulevard and Big Street.
In , there were more factories in Severin, of whom we mention: the shipyard, the Traian beer factory, the factory of cement tubes, that of Ice, the candies factory, 2 brickyards, 2 soap factories, a large tanning house manufacture, 3 locksmiths shops, 3 workshops for carts, and one foundry. The power station has been built among in the Public Garden and the building of Communal Baths has been built among In , the town had houses on 62 streets and a population of inhabitants. In that period, an increasing process of asphalting the streets with rolling stones and paving stones taken from the Stone Pits from Vrciorova and Bahna began.
Streets were asphalted from downtown to the suburbs In the period of , when Constantin Gruiescu was the Mayor of town, 2 very important actions took place: the water supply and the sewerage system were completed, after a project started in by Engineer Cucu. This project included: a general plan leveling, sewerage, paving and planting the streets of Severin The Park of Roses has also been gardened then. It is a rare architectural masterpiece.
In , October, 17th, the Prime Minister of the time, I. Br tianu arrived into town and 2 other ministers accompanied him: Alexandru Constantinescu and V. Mor un. They have attended the inauguration of the V. Demetrescu, quoted work, p. In , the Castle of Water began its construction. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century until World War I found the town of Turnu Severin in a continuous competition with it itself. This is the period when the great urbane projects and designs were accomplished. They make the town one of the most important urbane centers, not only from Oltenia, but from all over the country.
To conclude with, Turnu Severin is among the first 18 Romanian urbane centers. It was considered by Nicolae Iorga, the great scholar, the saving oasis to whom many Romanians from Banat downtrodden by the Hungarian mastery as well as Romanians over the Danube, from the Valley of Timoc, pointed their minds and souls Cest une des preuves qui montre que la ville roumaine comme bien dautres tait une copie fid le de plusieurs mod les occidentaux. Comme dautres pays, le jeune Etat roumain, constitu dans la deuxi me moiti du XIXe si cle a remplac les structures administratives anciennes en partant du mod le franais, en essayant ainsi de btir un nouveau syst me administratif qui rpondre aux ncessits de lpoque.
Dapr s Jean-Louis Halperin il sagit des deux piliers du syst me du syst me franais qui ont influenc les rformes de lorganisation administrative accomplies en Europe au cours du XIXe si cle : le dcoupage du territoire en dpartements et la cration dune hirarchie dagents uniques dpendant du gouvernement prfets, sous-prfets et maires , assists par des conseils1. En France2 et dans des autres pays qui ont pris linstitution prfectorale comme mod le, lItalie3 et la Roumanie4 le prfet tait le chef de ladministration dpartementale et lagent du Jean-Louis Halprin, Histoire des droits en Europe de nos jours, Paris, Editions Flammarion, , p.
Dans ltude des agents de ltat, et en gnral des institutions roumaines de cette priode, le probl me majeur consiste dans le manque ou, au moins, la pnurie des archives6. Entre et novembre , le nombre des prfets est denviron personnes. Une source essentielle dans lanalyse des trajets professionnels des membres de ladministration prfectorale est lAnnuaire du Minist re de lIntrieur mais qui ne couvre pas que seulement une br ve priode , , et il ne contient pas que des informations sur la carri re.
Les R glements organiques ont maintenu la division des Principauts dans jude e en Valachie et inuturi en Moldavie qui nont pas reu la personnalit juridique dirigs par locrmuitor et lispravnic administrativ, nomms par le prince rgnant parmi deux candidats choisis par le Conseil Administratif Sfatul Administrativ.
La dnomination pour dsigner le chef du dpartement a t Linstitution prfectorale roumaine XIX e - : un mod le franais? Ce nest quapr s la Premi re Guerre mondiale quil y a uniformisation des normes denregistrement concernant la croissance du nombre des fonctionnaires, la prise en charge de diffrentes attributions, en un mot la bureaucratisation tatique. Labsence dune loi qui codifie les attributions et les conditions dadmissibilit des membres du corps prfectoral a t supple par des lois sur dautres minist res, institutions ou dans des dcrets lois qui les ont accord des devoirs prcis des arr1ts ministriels sur la maintenance de lordre, la tutelle administrative, la sant publique, la lutte contre les brigandages etc.
Anne Nombre Lvolution du nombre des dpartements jude e 33 32 34 76 71 La loi sur ladministration centrale du minist re de lIntrieur du 19 avril modifie le 30 avril et la loi des services extrieures de la m1me 9 Par la Loi des conseils dpartementaux le dcret no. En outre, le prfet tait le commissaire du gouvernement aupr s le Conseil dpartemental art. Rosetti et Teodor Rosetti, tous dorientation librale modr ou radicale, ont initi des rformes concernant le Minist re de lIntrieur 11 Par larticle de la Constitution de tait nonc la ncessit immdiate de rdiger des lois concernant la dcentralisation administrative, la responsabilit des ministres, des conditions dadmissibilit dans les fonctions publiques Ioan Muraru, Gheorghe Iancu, Mona-Lisa Pucheanu, Corneliu-Liviu Popescu, Constitu iile romne Texte.
Le prfet tait charg de la police administrative et prventive de son dpartement, ayant aussi le droit de faire des rglementations dans le cas de leur approbation par le Ministre de lIntrieur art. Linspection des routes nationales et dpartementales, la responsabilit de veiller sur ladministration des biens des glises communales, ladministration des hpitaux, des asiles, des tablissements charitables dtat ou privs et des coles publiques lui ont galement t confies, autant des institutions o5 il avait le droit de faire des inspections.
Il devait intervenir en cas de calamits naturelles inondations, incendies, pidmies. La slection scolaire: les tudes Dans la deuxi me moiti du XIXe si cle, dans lespace sud-est europen la mise en place dun syst me lgislatif et institutionnel dinspiration occidentale a t limit par labsence des milieux instruits qui constituait un handicap majeur pour la construction des Etats modernes Le nombre des tudiants roumains inscrits dans les universits occidentales, ou comme auditeurs libres, est tr s lev si lon compare avec ceux des pays voisins.
Les tudiants roumains suivaient dans la plupart des cas une formation juridique en France, et aussi en Monitorul oficial , no. Ion Mamina, Monarhia Constitu ional n Romnia. Enciclopedie politic , , Bucure'ti, Editions Encyclopdique, , p. IV, no. Allemagne, Belgique ou en Italie.
En outre, des jeunes roumains ont dcroch aussi, en Belgique un diplme de licence et ou de doctorat en sciences politiques et administratives15, y compris quelques prfets. Dans les deux premi res dcennies apr s lunification de la Moldavie et de la Valachie le nombre des fonctionnaires publics ayant suivi des tudes suprieures tait faible, mais on observe que leur nombre va augmenter progressivement.
La poursuite des tudes suprieures, et surtout le fait dobtenir le diplme de licence, se fonde plutt sur une certaine volont personnelle que sur une ncessit ou exigence dordre professionnel. Le soutien que leurs apportaient les politiciens, la position sociale de leur famille taient les conditions pour occuper ces fonctions. Les changements lgislatifs sur les conditions dadmission, les attributions et lvolution du prestige de la fonction des membres du corps prfectoral concernent premi rement les sous-prfets les chefs darrondissement , ensuite les prfets.
Ce nest quen que lacc s aux fonctions de directeur de prfecture et de sous-prfet a t conditionn par les tudes, en ce cas par le diplme dtudes suprieures, Droit ou Sciences de ltat17, mais les drogations qui les ont t accordes nont pas dtermin immdiatement leur renouvellement. En ce qui concerne les prfets, ce nest quen , quest introduite la condition sur les tudes suprieures, pourtant lanalyse des tudes suivies nous montre le haut niveau intellectuel et m1me professionnel de ces fonctionnaires.
Pour cette tude nous avons ralis une tude statistique pour les prfets en fonction entre octobre et fvrier VI, no. XXXII, nr. On peut estimer que la grande majorit des ministres, des membres des cabinets ministriels et autres hauts fonctionnaires est passe par cette fili re tout au long de la priode On constate que les Lucian Nastasa, Le rle des tudes ltranger dans la carri re des professeurs duniversit roumains , in Victor Karady et Marius Kulczykowski sous la direction de , Lenseignement des lites en Europe centrale, Cracovie, universit Jagelonne, p.
Tout au long de la priode tudie, le cursus universitaire de droit a constitu la formation prdominante des membres de ladministration prfectorale. La majorit des sous-prfets de la priode , mais aussi ceux de la priode de lentre-deux-guerres, ont suivis la fili re juridique.
Le diplme de droit offrait en Roumanie une grande diversit demplois : du mtier davocat aux fonctions publiques. Ses qualits comme mdecin lui permettent dacqurir une large client le et de se crer des amitis et de jouir dun grand prestige dans le dpartement. Il a russi m1me en octobre , dobtenir le mandat de snateur comme indpendant George G. Ainsi peut-on parler des affinits sociales et intellectuelles.
Un ge idal pour! Le fonctionnaire du Minist re de lIntrieur devait 1tre roumain, avoir au moins 21 ans, il devait avoir satisfait la loi de recrutement et jouir de ses droits civils et politiques. Lge minimum des prfets tait dau moins 30 ans, m1me si au dessous de ce seuil on a trouv quelques cas avant les annes 23, mais cest plutt une caractristique du dbut de la cration de ltat roumain.
Il y a eu toujours une volont des jeunes lites de saffirmer par la fonction de prfet. Le prfet le plus g, de qui nous avons pris connaissance pour lenti re priode tudie est George D. Lge moyen des prfets, directeurs de prfecture, chefs darrondissement Age moyen 51 48 A premi re vue, nous ne pouvons pas tablir un lien entre lge du prfet et le poids du parti au pouvoir dans le dpartement. Pourtant, nous avons observ que les prfets jeunes sont nomms plutt dans les rgions ou lurbanit, les grandes villes, sont mieux reprsents. M1me si lopinion publique sest attaque au phnom ne bureaucratique26 peru comme parasitaire budgtivore , toutes les catgories sociales, y compris les lites, ont t attires par la fonction publique Beaucoup de jeunes issus des familles riches et ou nobles ont fait leur entre dans la vie publique en passant par de petits emplois.
Nimporte quelle catgorie sociale pouvait sassurer par la fonction publique au moins la prservation de son statut. Le soutien politique que le candidat ou le titulaire du poste recevait de la part des notables locaux et des facteurs dcisionnels nationaux parti politique au pouvoir, Minist re de l'intrieur, la Maison Royale, etc. En outre, le prestige et la visibilit publique, motivs par ses fonctions antrieures ou certains actes - civiques, dhro-sme influenaient la nomination dans ladministration prfectorale.
En , les fonctionnaires publics en Roumanie y compris lInstruction Publique et les Cultes taient environ Dans lentre-deux-guerres, la Roumanie comptait en , Vermeulen, Statutul func ionarilor publici, Bucure'ti, , p. Dans les annes les jeunes lites valaques et moldaves, parmi lesquelles ils y avaient des futurs hommes politiques roumains ont t attires par la vie militaire, un corps des jeunes officiers sest constitu.
La grande partie des officiers de la jeune arme roumaine ont la quitte en prfrant se ddier plutt aux activits comme la politique, la vie administrative, professions librales avocats, journalistes. Mdecin Maire de commune rurale Membre dans les conseils dpartementaux Dput Haut fonctionnaire commissaire royal Autres fonctions moyennes dans ladministration policier, secrtaire C.
En Roumanie, au XIXe si cle, avoir obtenu un diplme dtudes suprieures, refltait dans la majorit des cas, son origine sociale et ses moyens financiers, m1me si de nombreux membres de ladministration prfectorale, y compris les prfets, ont exerc des fonctions publiques de moindre importance, comme copiste, archiviste, etc.
Pour la future carri re il tait important le lieu o5 on exerait ces fonctions, 1tre copiste dans un minist re ou au Parlement assurait autant une rmunration, mais surtout un cercle de connaissances. A une premi re approche, par comparaison avec dautres dignits publiques prsident des Cours des Appels, magistrat, officier suprieur ou membre du Parlement la fonction de prfet noffrait pas le m1me prestige et une plus facile monte au premier niveau du pouvoir ministre, prsident de la Cour de Cassation, prsident de lune des deux chambres du Parlement.
Seulement deux chefs du Conseil des Ministres pendant la priode tudie ont exerc la fonction de prfet : Stefan Golescu et Theodor Rosetti, prfet de Vaslui sous Alexandru Ioan Cuza avril fvr. On remarque le grand nombre des anciens prfets de Iasi six sur treize devenus. Tous ces constats ne veulent pas induire lide que la fonction prfectorale ne confrait pas de pouvoirs, mais les prfets qui avaient fait une grande carri re politique en raison de leur passage par les dignits prfectorales sont peu nombreux.
On a rencontr aussi dans le XIXe si cle des anciens prfets re devenus chefs darrondissement. Il ne sagissait pas seulement dune continuit ou de la reconnaissance des qualits professionnelles, mais surtout de la prservation de linfluence au niveau local dun certain groupe dintr1ts. A une chelle plus basse, les fonctions de chef darrondissement et directeur de prfecture attiraient la lite locale moyenne. Teleman, Radu Mihail, C. M1me si en thorie, le droit de nommer les agents du pouvoir central au niveau local appartenait au ministre de lIntrieur, avant le prfet tait celui qui imposait dhabitude ses favoris, une dcision prise au niveau local, tradition qui saffermisse dans le temps, en venant en contradiction avec deux processus complmentaires : la centralisation et la bureaucratisation du pays.
Les prfets prfraient travailler avec des gens quils connaissaient bien. Apr s , linfluence du prfet dans la nomination des chefs darrondissement est devenue moins forte, contrainte par la demande dun examen et la division de ces agents en deux classes en fonction des comptences et de lanciennet. Non par hasard, beaucoup de politiciens ont altern la fonction de prfet avec celle de dput.
Ainsi, le prfet de Suceava , George G. La place de dput est devenu ligible, la loi prvoyant des lections partielle et le candidat du gouvernement, lu, a t lancien prfet. Alternance en fonction, auto-suspension, stabilit Dans le Vieux Royaume la vie politique se caractrisait par l'alternance au pouvoir des deux forces politiques principales: les conservateurs et les libraux. Ce phnom ne doit 1tre vu comme une forme de manifestation du mcanisme politique - consquence de beaucoup de facteurs socio-conomiques et politiques et non pas d'un pacte entre ces formations Nous sommes dans une poque ou quelques centaines des gens pouvaient dterminer la nomination dun dput.
Un nouveau gouvernement ne signifiait pas le remplacement de lensemble de lappareil administratif. En ce qui concerne la notion dpuration des prfets pour la priode tudie, elle doit 1tre carte, pour le simple fait, que les chefs de dpartement taient des fonctionnaires politiques et ils se lgitimaient comme tels Le nouveau gouvernement navait pas besoin de licencier les prfets nomms par un autre parti politique, parce que euxm1mes prsentaient leur dmission peu de temps apr s que la chute du gouvernement devenait effective.
On peut m1me considrer quil sagit aussi des pratiques lies au clientlisme politique. Nous considrons que les lois des annes sur les conseils dpartementaux et sur les communes rurales et urbaines ont apport une forte centralisation, mais de laquelle ont su profiter les hommes politiques locaux. Profitant dune douzaine dannes pendant laquelle ils ont dtenu le pouvoir , le gouvernement libral de Ion C.
Br tianu a tent de restreindre le pouvoir de notables, voir les sympathisants des factions conservateurs.
Sans les prfets et leurs adjoints lectoraux les chefs darrondissements la dot gouvernementale serait moins apprciable. Giard et E. Bri re, , p. Les institutions centrales ne jouissaient pas encore de trop des moyens et m1me dune conscience tatique pour administrer dune mani re centralise lEtat, il sagissait plutt de la dconcentration, par la dlgation du pouvoir au prfet. Dautres conditions d! Ce nest quen Dobroudja de nord et de sud39 que lorigine gographique des membres du corps prfectoral ne co-ncide pas, dans plus de la moiti des cas, avec le dpartement dans lequel ils ont t nomms pour la premi re fois dans ces fonctions.
Le lieu de naissance, les liens de parent taient des facteurs importants, mais il faut tenir compte galement de lactivit professionnelle antrieure. Avant le droit de vote tait accord en fonction de la fortune, de cens, les conditions dadmissibilit et les capacits professionnelles taient accompagnes par dautres qualits : la fortune, les rseaux de connaissances et le lien de parent avec les hommes du pouvoir, mais aussi les capacits lectorales. Pour la deuxi me moiti du XIXe si cle, nous avons pu constater que non seulement la plupart des prfets, mais aussi de nombreux sous-prfets et directeurs de prfecture faisaient partie de la classe des boyards La fonction publique tait une modalit dascension sociale ou au moins du maintien du prestige.
La fonction de prfet offrait lgitimit et prsance A ct d'une bourgeoisie urbaine et orient sur les domaines conomiques voit le jour une bourgeoisie de dignitaires qui jouissent d'une prosprit matrielle sans avoir dans le m1me temps un pouvoir conomique rel A ce processus, il n'chappe pas l'institution prfectorale, mais il sav re plus vident dans le cas des chefs d'arrondissement et des directeurs de prfecture. On a rencontr m1me des cas o5 le successeur dun prfet tait le fils ou le fr re de celui-ci Dans dautres cas, des membres de la m1me famille taient prfets sous le m1me gouvernement Ils ne manquent pas dexemples de fils de grands boyards et de familles tr s puissantes qui ont choisi d1tre nomms dans ces fonctions subalternes directeur de prfecture, sous-prfet pour y acqurir de lexprience et pour largir par contact direct le cercle des connaissances, pour arriver dans dautres dignits publiques.
Grigore et Dimitrie Cozadini taient des cousins de premier degr avec lancien prince rgnant Alexandru Ioan Cuza, fait qui na emp 1ch le nouveau pouvoir de les nommer dans la fonction de prfets. Une autre situation plus complexe vise la tentative de certaines familles de conserver leur influence dans le dpartement sans aucun rapport au parti politique au pouvoir. En outre, Iunius a pous la premi re fois sa cousine Maria, fille de Gheorghe Lecca divorc dIunius et remarie avec le future prfet Panait Cantilli, et la deuxi me fois il a pous lex pouse du son cousin, lancien prfet Caton Lecca, Elena Sideri Dans le dpartement de Bac u, lalternance des libraux et des conservateurs au gouvernement a t amoindrie par la nomination comme prfet de la part des conservateurs du beau-fils du gnral Lecca, Panait Cantilli Ils bnficiaient ainsi plus facilement du soutien politique des membres du parti au pouvoir pour y accder dans une haute dignit publique.
Le mariage quun demandeur demploi publique ou un fonctionnaire le ralisait pouvait influencer sa carri re administrative. Quelques prfets ont eu des liaisons matrimoniales avec les Br tianu. Elena Furduescu, ni ce dune soeur du I. Ilie I.